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False Memory

Phenomenon that leads to the generation of inaccurate memories, if not completely false, but can be believed as true from the subject.

Category : Memory Biases

Von Restorff Effect

When several homogeneous stimuli are presented, the stimulus that differs from the rest has the highest probability of being remembered..

Category : Memory Biases

Lag Effect

The further apart the study sessions are, the easier it will be to store the new information to be learned in long-term memory..

Category : Memory Biases

Spacing Effect

Long-term memory is enhanced when learning events are spaced out over time, rather than crammed together in immediate succession .

Category : Memory Biases

Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency to remember better and consider more credible an information by simply being exposed to it many times and for a longer period.

Category : Memory Biases

Telescoping Effect

Events closer in time between each other are perceived as more distant, while events distant in time are perceived as closer.

Category : Memory Biases

Peak-End Rule

Emotional memories of our past experiences correspond to the most extreme emotional peak and to the moment we ended that experience.

Category : Memory Biases

Nostalgia Effect

We tend to remember the past as a better time and, consequently, the past is recalled with nostalgia and tend to spend more about nostalgic products.

Category : Memory Biases

Availability Cascade

The more repeated an information is, the easier it is remembered and considered to be true. It’s similar to the Mere Exposure Effect.

Category : Memory Biases

End of History Illusion

We tend to consider our present characteristics as more stable than our past ones, even though we changed a lot. It’s connected to the Consistency Illusion.

Category : Memory Biases

Selection Bias

It can influence a research because of a wrong choice of subjects/data: the observation on data is not generalizable to the whole population.

Category : Statistical Biases

Conservatism

The tendency to remain faithful to our idea, instead of stating the correctness and validity of new information and ideas.

Category : Statistical Biases

Look-Elsewhere

In a statistical study significant data have been observed. They emerged since they were within specific dimensions and a certain number of cases was analyzed.

Category : Statistical Biases

Gambler's Fallacy

An event is considered less probable if a series of these events has occurred previously in a frequent way. It’s the tendency to think that if something happens frequently, in the future it will happen with a lower frequency and vice versa.

Category : Statistical Biases

Survivorship Bias

Error in the choice of subjects/data because the choice is based on successes and positive results, without considering the negative ones.

Category : Statistical Biases

Time-saving Bias

Error in estimating how much time is wasted or saved based on the increase or decrease of speed at which you are travelling: going faster, the time saved is overestimated.

Category : Statistical Biases

Pessimism Bias

Tendency to overestimate the probability of negative events occurring and consequently underestimate the probability of positive events occurring.

Category : Statistical Biases

Aggregate Bias

The idea that aggregated data are not applicable to the single patient (in the medical sphere), this can lead to errors in diagnosis.

Category : Statistical Biases

Category Size Bias

It’s the tendency to be more affected by the influence of alternatives that are part of bigger categories, because we think that they could easily happen.

Category : Statistical Biases

Zebra Retreat

It’s the tendency (in the medical sphere) to hesitate in making a diagnosis for a rare disease, even if it’s the most probable one in that case.

Category : Statistical Biases

Learned Helplessness

Following repeated failures, there is the conviction of having no power over our own destiny neither no responsibilities towards possible successes or failures.

Category : confidence-biases

Optimism Bias

It’s a bias that is observed in young patients, that tend to overestimate their health condition and to think that they do not need drugs or devices. In general, it’s thinking that the situation is better than what it really is.

Category : confidence-biases

Illusory Superiority

Illusion that leads us to consider ourselves to be superior and more skilled than others Illusion that leads us to consider ourselves to be superior and more skilled than others Illusion that leads us to consider ourselves to be superior and more skilled.

Category : confidence-biases

Anchoring

It’s the tendency to evaluate objects and prices in a distorted way, since we are influenced by figures and information that we possess.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Satisficing

Strategy of decision-making that aims to obtain an adequate or satisfying result, instead of the optimal one. It’s the tendency to focus on the pragmatic side of things.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Halo Effect

It’s the tendency to extend a certain characteristic of an object to other fields, since we believe that it can be generalizable.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Premature Closure

In the medical sphere, it’s the tendency to make a diagnosis as soon as possible, with the risk of choosing the first diagnosis that we found.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Jumping to Conclusions

It’s the tendency to collect little information before reaching the conclusion of something It’s the tendency to collect little information before reaching the conclusion of something It’s the tendency to collect little information before reaching .

Category : Adjustment Biases

Selective Perception

It’s the tendency to forget information that is against our own ideas It’s the tendency to forget information that is against our own ideas It’s the tendency to forget information that is against our own ideas It’s the tendency to forget informat.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Experimenter's Bias

The researcher’s expectations tend to unconsciously modify the result of an experiment, so that they are close to what the experimenter expected.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Sunk Cost Effect

Describes our tendency to follow through on an endeavour if we have already invested time, effort or money into it, whether or not the current costs outweigh the benefits..

Category : Adjustment Biases

Diagnostic Momentum

In the medical sphere, after making the diagnosis, it’s hard to change opinion on it In the medical sphere, after making the diagnosis, it’s hard to change opinion on it In the medical sphere, after making the diagnosis, it’s hard to change opinion.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Unpacking Principles

In the medical sphere, failure in expressing all relevant information for a diagnosis can lead to losing possibilities. If something has a very accurate description, it is considered more probable.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Triage Cueing

  In the medical sphere, the triage can lead the patient in a certain direction, which can influence the diagnosis  In the medical sphere, the triage can lead the patient in a certain direction, which can influence the diagnosis  In the medical sphere,.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Sutton's Slip

In the medical sphere, it’s the diagnostic strategy of making the most obvious choice, discarding all other less obvious possibilities.

Category : Adjustment Biases

Form Function Attribution Bias

In human-robot relationship, it’s the tendency to erroneously evaluate the potential of a machine based on how it looks like In human-robot relationship, it’s the tendency to erroneously evaluate the potential of a machine based on how it looks like .

Category : Adjustment Biases

Framing Effect

The choices we make depend on how we consider the information that is presented, for example, a change of perspective during the decision-making process influences the evaluation of the results.

Category : Presentation Biases

Order Effects

The quantity of information remembered and the relevance that we give to it depends on the order in which they are presented.

Category : Presentation Biases

Decoy Effect

If the subject is faced with two options and still remains undecided, the presentation of a third option that is similar but less desirable will produce a shift in the preference of the subject.

Category : Presentation Biases

Less is Better Effect

A smaller alternative is preferable when it is considered as a single, separated from other possibilities, while it’s not preferable if compared to other possibilities.

Category : Presentation Biases

Distinction Effect

When we compare two similar things at the same time, we focus more on the differences, while we don’t do it if we compare them at different times.

Category : Presentation Biases

Contrast effect

The contrast effect is a cognitive bias that distorts our perception of something when we compare it to something else, by enhancing the differences between them..

Category : Situation Biases

Risk Compensation Bias

Tendency to be more cautious and careful when the risk is higher, and to be less prudent (and in some cases underestimating risks) when we feel safer.

Category : Situation Biases

Affect heuristic

Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make dec.

Category : Situation Biases

Apophenia

Tendency to perceive connections or relationships between events or objects which are not totally related.

Category : Situation Biases

Default Bias

When we have to make a decision, we tend not to act, keeping things as they are and acting based on the status quo.

Category : Situation Biases

Gender Bias

Stereotypical way of thinking about gender, which has repercussions on many fields, from the medical one to the legal one.

Category : Stereotypes

Racial Bias

Stereotypical way of thinking about ethnic groups, which has repercussions on many fields, from the medical one to the legal one.

Category : Stereotypes

Rape Myths

Stereotypical stories about rape and sexual assault. It includes the victim’s and the perpetrator’s identity, the expected behaviour of the victim, the situation in which the rape occurs, etc..

Category : Stereotypes

Ingroup Bias

Instinctive preference towards members of our own ingroup, and consider them more positively.

Category : Stereotypes

Just-world Hypothesis

Psychologic theory that states that the world is fundamentally just, therefore good and bad things happen to whom it is deserved.

Category : Stereotypes

Herding

Tendency to base our decisions on the observations made on the majority, rather than basing it on personal information.

Category : Relational Biases

Groupthink

In a group, it’s the tendency to change our decision in order to get the approval of others, in some cases avoiding expressing our own thoughts.

Category : Relational Biases

Actor/Observer Bias

It’s the tendency to judge in different ways motives and characteristics of certain actions, based on who did them and what kind of relationship we have with them.

Category : Relational Biases

IKEA Effect

It’s the tendency to overvalue something we have built or helped building it, both physically and ideally.

Category : Relational Biases

Zero-sum Bias

It’s the tendency to erroneously consider some situations as zero-sum games, this leads to believe that other people’s successes correspond to our own failures.

Category : Relational Biases

Ben Franklin Effect

It’s the tendency to believe that someone who has done a favour once is inclined to do others, and, on the contrary, who owes a favour is inclined not to return it.

Category : Relational Biases

Extrinsic Incentive Bias

It’s the tendency to believe that other people work hard because they are motivated by extrinsic incentives (such as money), rather than intrinsic ones (such as satisfaction).

Category : Relational Biases

Subconscious Bias

Not always people are aware of what happens and of the reasons why they are more favourable towards certain messages they have been exposed to.

Category : Subconcious Biases

Habit Bias

It’s the tendency to do habitual actions: the subject is not aware of having executed an automatic gesture .

Category : Subconcious Biases

Mental Accounting

In economics, it’s the tendency to base our decision on an irrational system of mental accounting, that gives value on a relative basis.

Category : Residual Biases

Weber-Fechner Law

This law describes the error that generates from the difference of an actual physical change and the perception of said change from the subject.

Category : Residual Biases

Declinism

It’s the tendency to think that negative events are bound to happen, and the situation will worsen over time.

Category : Residual Biases

Naive Allocations

In economics, it’s the tendency to divide our own investments in an equal way in several options, without a rational calculation.

Category : Residual Biases

Forer Effect

It’s the tendency to believe that a certain psychological profile corresponds to our own, after said profile has been presented and described to us.

Category : Residual Biases