Biases are “systematic errors in reasoning that result from flawed processing of cognitive shortcuts or heuristics” (Kahneman, Nobel Prize in Economics).

They occur when people process and interpret information heuristically, but in situations where the heuristic is not valid. Heuristics are defined as mental shortcuts, practical and intuitive rules that simplify thinking and problem solving.

Since heuristics are based on specific patterns, the resulting biases are therefore predictable and systematic, i.e. they always lead to error in the same way.

These errors spoil the decision-making process and, in the context of Strategic Communication, they prevent the birth and maintenance of stable relationships and functional cooperation between the various parties involved.

The Study Centre, using neuroscientific evidence, promotes methodological approaches aimed at mitigating the effect of biases as well as using them proactively where the context is favourable.

In this regard, we have chosen to share over two hundred biases existing in the literature, classified according to a taxonomy inspired by the one from Arnott (2006) but integrated with additional categories.