Memory Biases

It’s a family of biases concerning how information and events are remembered.

False Memory

Phenomenon that leads to the generation of inaccurate memories, if not completely false, but can be believed as true from the subject.

Von Restorff Effect

When several homogeneous stimuli are presented, the stimulus that differs from the rest has the highest probability of being remembered..

Availability Bias

The tendency to judge the probability of an event based on how easy an example of that event can be remembered.

Recall Bias

The memory we have of an event depends from the following events and situations.

Suggestibility Effect

The generation of false memories based on information given after some time by other individuals.

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to consider an event more probable than it really is when we recall it.

Lag Effect

The further apart the study sessions are, the easier it will be to store the new information to be learned in long-term memory..

Spacing Effect

Long-term memory is enhanced when learning events are spaced out over time, rather than crammed together in immediate succession .

Mere Exposure Effect

The tendency to remember better and consider more credible an information by simply being exposed to it many times and for a longer period.

Telescoping Effect

Events closer in time between each other are perceived as more distant, while events distant in time are perceived as closer.

Peak-End Rule

Emotional memories of our past experiences correspond to the most extreme emotional peak and to the moment we ended that experience.

Source Confusion

Event that occurs when someone can’t precisely identify the source of a memory.

Zeigarnik Effect

Postponed activities are better remembered than those we have completed.

Consistency Bias

When we think about our past, we tend to attribute ourselves thoughts and characteristics of our present self.

Nostalgia Effect

We tend to remember the past as a better time and, consequently, the past is recalled with nostalgia and tend to spend more about nostalgic products.

Google Effect

We tend to remember in a worse way information stored on the internet.

Availability Cascade

The more repeated an information is, the easier it is remembered and considered to be true. It’s similar to the Mere Exposure Effect.

End of History Illusion

We tend to consider our present characteristics as more stable than our past ones, even though we changed a lot. It’s connected to the Consistency Illusion.

Next in Line Effect

When we have to speak in turn, we remember less about what the person right before us said.

Verbatim Effect

We tend to memorize key concepts instead of single words that compose the whole subject.