Presentation Biases

It’s a family of biases that describes the ways in which information is perceived and processed in the decision-making process, concerning how our evaluation of the information changes in regard to how it is showed to us.

Bounded Rationality

When we have to make a decision, we are limited by many factors, such as our mental abilities.

Framing Effect

The choices we make depend on how we consider the information that is presented, for example, a change of perspective during the decision-making process influences the evaluation of the results.

Order Effects

The quantity of information remembered and the relevance that we give to it depends on the order in which they are presented.

Recency Effect

It’s the tendency to remember better and to give more importance to the last piece of information received.

Hyperbolic Discounting

It’s preferable to obtain an immediate gratification rather than a greater gratification in the longer term.

Primacy Effect

The first information presented tends to be remembered better and to have more importance.

Present Bias

Tendency to give more relevance to consequences in the near future, rather than those in the distant future.


It’s the tendency to change something or do a regrettable thing, if we think that we’ll get a reward later.

Mere Exposure Effect

We tend to prefer things, places and people we are the most exposed to and we have more trust in.

Decoy Effect

If the subject is faced with two options and still remains undecided, the presentation of a third option that is similar but less desirable will produce a shift in the preference of the subject.


Facing too many options leads consumers to an over choice and consequently will make their choice harder.

Bundling Effect

If articles are part of a bundle or a package, we tend to consider them in a different way.

Denomination Effect

It’s the tendency to spend more money as soon as the exchange currency decreases the figures, since we have the feeling that the price is lower.

Less is Better Effect

A smaller alternative is preferable when it is considered as a single, separated from other possibilities, while it’s not preferable if compared to other possibilities.

Distinction Effect

When we compare two similar things at the same time, we focus more on the differences, while we don’t do it if we compare them at different times.

Appeal to Novelty

We tend to consider something as positive and innovative for the only reason that it is new.