Situation Biases

These biases describe how the subject reacts to the situation they are faced with; they represent the highest level of abstraction reached by biases.

Attentional Bias

Tendency to focus on specific elements of a situation, ignoring others.

Loss Aversion

We tend to consider as more relevant the risks, rather than the possible benefits, and act accordingly.

Response Bias

Series of behaviours presented when we are faced with a test, especially with a multiple choice one.


Error in the identification of the cause or concurrent causes of a phenomenon.

Contrast effect

The contrast effect is a cognitive bias that distorts our perception of something when we compare it to something else, by enhancing the differences between them..

State Dependence

The perception of our own state influences the decision-making process.

Negativity Bias

Tendency to process first and give more relevance to negative events, rather than neutral or positive ones.

Status Quo Bias

Tendency to set as baseline the actual state of things and excessively use the status quo as a reference point.

Risk Compensation Bias

Tendency to be more cautious and careful when the risk is higher, and to be less prudent (and in some cases underestimating risks) when we feel safer.

Interpretative Bias

Cognitive error that occurs in the interpretation process of stimuli, both internal and external.

Affect heuristic

Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make decisions faster Tendency to rely on emotions and feelings to make dec.

Contextual Bias

In the legal sphere, it’s the tendency to be misled by contextual information, which is not related to the facts.

Regret Aversion

Tendency to anticipate the worst possible scenario and act aiming to avoid it.


Tendency to find recognizable patterns (such as a human face) in objects and elements.

Ambiguity Effect

Tendency to prefer options of which we better know the probability of success.

Planning Fallacy

Tendency to underestimate risks and require effort while making a decision.

Attribute Substitution

When we have to solve a complex problem, we tend to focus on another situation, simpler than the main one.

Focusing Effect

Tendency to pay excessive attention to the smallest detail, ignoring a wider point of view.


Tendency to perceive connections or relationships between events or objects which are not totally related.

Salience Bias

Tendency to express judgments and reaching conclusions based only on some evident characteristics.

Focusing Illusion

Decision-makers tend to focus on a single element or consequence of a decision at a time, without considering the whole thing.

Duration Neglect

The evaluation of an event depends more on its intensity and less on the duration of the emotion connected to it.

Default Bias

When we have to make a decision, we tend not to act, keeping things as they are and acting based on the status quo.

Frequency Illusion

Tendency to see everywhere something you have just noticed, with a great frequency.