Stereotypes

Stereotypes are beliefs on personal attributes of a certain group of individuals; they are overgeneralized, imprecise and resistant to new information. They have been included in this list because they too are thinking shortcuts that allow us to categorize reality faster, but they are almost always imprecise and can have heavy repercussions on how groups or organizations function.

Gender Bias

Stereotypical way of thinking about gender, which has repercussions on many fields, from the medical one to the legal one.

Racial Bias

Stereotypical way of thinking about ethnic groups, which has repercussions on many fields, from the medical one to the legal one.

Rape Myths

Stereotypical stories about rape and sexual assault. It includes the victim’s and the perpetrator’s identity, the expected behaviour of the victim, the situation in which the rape occurs, etc..

Ingroup Bias

Instinctive preference towards members of our own ingroup, and consider them more positively.

Overgeneralizing

Tendency to generalize to the whole population effects that have been observed in a small sample size.

Scientist/Expert Bias

Tendency to give credibility to scientist and experts when they are talking about something we do not understand.

Outgroup Bias

Mistrust towards members of the outgroup, tendency to judge them more negatively .

Just-world Hypothesis

Psychologic theory that states that the world is fundamentally just, therefore good and bad things happen to whom it is deserved.

Ultimate Attribution Error

Systematic tendency to consider the cause of a behaviour to be internal, underestimating the influence of the environment or the context.